Historic Walking Tour

Bronze Sculpture Capital of Canada

Public Art in Princeton

Top Gallery Photo Sample

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In this tour we'll take a look at the bronze sculptures recently installed around downtown Princeton as part of the town's beautification plan. We'll learn about some of the animals you can find in the Princeton District.

This project is a partnership with the Town of Princeton and the Princeton & District Museum and Archives.

1. Elk


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Elk have been part of the North American environment since the ice age. These large, social, vocal animals left British Columbia completely during the last glacial advance but repopulated both the wet coast and dry interior after the ice melted. While most North Americans know these animals as elk, they are also sometimes called wapiti, this is because the title of Elk is actually somewhat inaccurate. When Europeans arrived in North America, they saw these animals as being much larger than the species of deer they were accustomed to, and assumed they were more closely related to their European Elk, which we Canadians know as moose. To alleviate this confusion, many use the anglicised name, wapiti, which was based on a word used by the Shawnee people and Cree Nation.

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Next to moose, elk are the largest members of the deer family. Adult bulls stand about 140 cm high at the shoulder and weigh 265 to 410 kg, about the weight of a large Arabian horse, although they are shorter in stature. Female elk, or, cows are smaller, standing about 130 cm high and weighing about 190 to 270 kg. British Columbia is home to two subspecies of Elk, the Roosevelt Elk, which populate Vancouver Island and small areas of coastal BC, and the Rocky Mountain Elk, whose range spans the southern interior of BC, and the Kootenays. These are the Elk commonly spotted around Princeton. During mating season in early autumn, males seek out groups of females and become quite aggressive towards other males. To intimidate rival bulls, male elk will often use a loud dramatic vocal display known as a bugle. This starts as a low roar deep in the chest, then transitions into a high bugling sound, before ending in a series of grunts. Sometimes during this time of year, it is possible to encounter a bellowing chorus of elk bugles echoing through a mountain valley. Males will also fight during this season, with these physical displays sometimes ending with one male goring the other with his antlers. Elk are intelligent and highly adaptable animals, subsisting in different ecological zones, sometimes becoming nocturnal in response to human activities, and even occasionally raiding alfalfa farms and hay bales for food. Thanks in part to conservation efforts, elk populations in BC are doing well, with several transplanted elk producing new herds, and efforts to consider the needs of elk populations in agriculture and forestry practices helping to support healthy populations. While elk aren't as numerous in the Similkameen as they are in the Rockies, they still make their presence known, and at certain times of the year it is not uncommon to see elk feeding in fields on the edge of town.

2. Moose


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Moose are the largest living member of the deer family. Four subspecies are found in Canada: the Alaska/Yukon moose, the shiras moose, the western Canada moose and the eastern Canada moose. They live in every province and territory except Prince Edward Island. Often considered a symbol of Canada, the moose is featured on Ontario’s provincial coat of arms. It can be difficult to picture the sheer size of a moose until encountering one up close. A fully grown male can reach from 1.9 to 2 meters at the shoulder, and weigh around 450 to 500 kg, or about the weight of a grand piano.

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Today, BC has around 170,000 moose, with about 70% of these concentrated in Northern BC, and the remainder found in the Cariboo-Chilcotin, Thompson-Okanagan, and Kootenay region. Part of the reason moose enjoy such a large range is because their long legs allow them to move easily through deep snow, which is a challenge for smaller relatives such as elk and deer. Historically, in many parts of BC moose were a vital resource for First Nations peoples. Their meat was an important food resource, their hide used for clothing, footwear, and shelter, while bones and antlers were made into tools and implements. Today, moose are still important to First Nations communities, and are also one of the provinces leading game animals. Around 8000 to 14,000 moose are harvested yearly, and the revenue generated by the sale of hunting licenses is frequently routed into management of moose populations, habitat enhancement, and enforcement programs.

3. The Mountain Man


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The Mountain Man (1903). Remington described “The Mountain Man” as one of the "old Iroquois trappers who followed the Fur Companies in the Rocky Mountains in the 1830's & 40's," probably referring to French Canadian trappers. The sculptor chose a dramatic episode in the daily life of a trapper, his and his mount's descent on an almost vertical slope. Man and horse work together to make the trip down a treacherously rocky decline: The horse has been given full rein to choose its pace and path; the rider leans sharply back and balances himself by holding on to the tail strap with his right hand.

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Surrounded by mountains, in the heart of ranch country, "No community in BC relied so heavily on the horse as did Princeton. Cut off from the Coast by the impenetrable Hope mountain range, the slowness of the construction of the highway to Hope, and the ruggedness of the area, the horse had a tremendous advantage over any other means of travel." The terrain of the area could be challenge for coaches and wagons, but a single rider on horseback could traverse the treacherous rock bluffs around the young settlement. Several locals reared horses for various purposes. Bill Garrison raised them for freighting and transportation, Luke Gibson raised racehorses, and Jack Budd, playing both sides, raised horses for both outlaw Bill Miner and the RCMP who were desperate to catch him. Horses also played a significant role in logging, transporting loggers into the backcountry, and as teams that would drag logs out of the forest. Horses were used in this area for logging all the way up to 1960, when more modern methods were adopted.

4. Cougar


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The Cougar is the most gracile of the New World wild cats. It has long legs and tail, and a small head (similar to the African cheetah, thus has also been called the American cheetah). Their colouring varies from tawny to cinnamon or reddish brown; underparts are dull white. The backs of the ears, markings on the face and the last 5-8 cm of the tail are black. An average male cougar weighs around 60 kg, while females are slightly smaller, usually averaging 45 kg. Cougars are found across BC, with the highest numbers concentrated on the coast. They have one of the largest ranges of any mammal in the western hemisphere, from northern BC, all the way south to Argentina, and due to this are known by over 40 names, including puma, mountain lion, and panther. While they prefer a mountainous, or densely forested habitat, cougars will follow food across diverse ecological regions.

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While the grizzly and the black bear are BC's biggest predators, it is often cougars that strike fear into the hearts of hikers and campers. While cougars are impressive predators, able to sprint 56 kilometers per hour, launch themselves forward up over gaps 9 long, and leap as high as 5.5 meters above the ground, they actually pose little threat to humans. Conflicts between humans and cougars are exceedingly rare, in the last 100 years, only 5 people have died from cougar attacks in BC. While cougars will eat anything from beavers to rodents and fish, and even occasionally animals several times their body weight, such as moose, but their primary prey is deer. Cougars are what is known as a keystone species, a species which has a disproportionately large impact on its environment relative to its abundance. Since cougars help manage numbers of prey species, especially deer, they have a huge impact on plant species that can be decimated by the grazing of uncontrolled numbers of deer. In BC and western Canada, cougars are not a species at risk. While cougars in eastern Canada and the United States are virtually gone due to loss of habitat, their population in the west remains stable. Like many other species, human activity is the biggest threat to cougars as population growth increasingly infringes on cougar habitats.

5. Wolf


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The wolf is the largest wild member of the dog family. Living wolves belong to the Holarctic species Canis lupus (except red wolf, C. rufus of the southeast US). The grey wolf is the largest, weighing 25 - 45 kg, and has a distinctively massive head with a strong forehead. It resembles a German shepherd dog, although its coat is usually greyish. Black or almost white individuals also exist. Like many Canids, wolves are social animals that live in family packs. A pack can reach numbers up into the thirties, but most packs consist of 5 - 12 wolves that are lead by a dominant alpha male and female pair. Every pack has a social structure and rules of conduct between wolves of hierarchical rank, with every wolf knowing its place in the pecking order. By living in family packs, wolves can cooperate to defend their territory, hunt down larger prey, and to raise the pack's pups. Wolves will eat rabbits, squirrels, mice, birds, and even fish, but their main prey is usually hooved animals such as deer, elk, caribou, and moose.

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Wolves hold a special place in folklore and the popular imagination, demonized in tales such as Little Red Riding Hood, Peter and the Wolf, and the Three Little Pigs. Much of these tales originated in a time where the threat of a wolf attack was very real, and where livestock, more than people, were frequently threatened by wolves. In British Columbia, these same fears lead to mass poisoning and culling of wolves in the early 20th century. Many settlers to the area established farms and ranches, gathering livestock into small areas where they were easy prey for wolves. Despite the impact these actions had on wolf populations, today wolves have bounced back and are now no longer an "at risk" species. However, BC's relationship with wolves is still complicated. While wolf populations are stable, several herds of BC's mountain caribou, the emblematic animal of the north that graces the Canadian quarter, are on the brink of extinction. To help save the caribou, the BC government funds wolf culls every year to ease the predation on already stressed caribou populations. In winter of 2019/2020, 463 wolves were killed, costing the province 2 million dollars, in a desperate effort to save the caribou. These culls are highly controversial, with many animal rights groups calling for an end to the culls, but the solution isn't that simple. The main threat to caribou isn't wolves, but logging and industrial development which is destroying old growth habitat where lichen that caribou feed on grows. Wolf culls temporarily alleviate some of the stress on caribou populations, but biologists predict that in order for wolf culls to be truly effective, 70 - 90% of the wolves in endangered caribou habitats would need to be killed every year over a period of decades. Even if these measures were taken, many caribou herds are on the brink of extinction and could very well die out anyways. The issue is complicated, and while the province is undertaking several other measures to save the caribou including habitat restoration, wolf culls are the quickest bandaid for a problem that cannot be solved overnight; the loss of old growth forests. Wolf culls may be having another interesting effect for residents of the Okanagan. In the last decade, hunters and residents of the Okanagan are reporting more wolf sightings than in previous decades. Some scientists and members of the BC Wildlife Federation believe that as wolf packs are being fractured by culls in northern BC and the Kootenays, that wolves are wandering further to establish new packs, leading to increasing numbers of wolves in the Okanagan.

6. Fox


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The fox is a small, omnivorous mammal of the dog family. Four species inhabit Canada: red or coloured, swift, grey, and Arctic foxes. Red and Arctic foxes have circumpolar distribution; grey and swift foxes are New World foxes; swift foxes are mostly found in the US and Mexico, but were recently successfully reintroduced in Alberta. The only species of fox in BC is the red fox, or vulpes vulpes, which enjoys a large range across the province, preferring more open habitats with some shrubs and trees, including beaches and marshlands, prairies and scrubland to forest settings. Despite their name, red foxes aren't always red, but can range in shades of copper and bright red, to brow, black, and even silver. As omnivores, red foxes will occasionally eat berries and corn, but their main source of food are rodents such as mice, voles, and chipmunks, and sometimes rabbits, snowshoe hares, birds and their eggs, and ground squirrels.

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Red foxes are nocturnal, and at their most active around dusk and dawn, but it's not uncommon to spot them during the day. Their sharp sight, smell and hearing abilities make them formidable hunters, but they have one other advantage that is rare among mammals. Red foxes can hear low-frequency sounds, which help them hear prey underground, giving them an advantage over the rodents that make up most of their diet. Despite their reliance on rodents, red foxes have developed a taste for white meat. Farmers often come into conflict with foxes when they catch the small predators invading their hen houses. Chubby domesticated chickens kept in enclosures make an attractive meal for foxes devious enough to break into coops. Many articles tackle the topic of how farmers can keep their chickens secure from these thieves, including measures such as making sure chickens are locked securely in a coop at night, 6 foot high fences that stretch for a ways underground to prevent digging underneath, and doing frequent checks of fencing for holes or weak points. Foxes are clever enough to study a coop for days before a raid, looking for any weak points that will allow them to capture a juicy chicken.

7. Black Bears


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British Columbia has some of the highest populations of black bears in the world with estimates ranging from 120 to 150 thousand animals. Most of BC is considered “bear country” with bears living in coastal temperate rainforests as well as the dry interior. While called a black bear, these animals come in a variety of colours – everything from the white Kermode bear through to their namesake black and most shades of brown in between. When black bears come in brown or cinnamon shades, they can be mistaken for grizzly bears, but physically they are smaller, shorter, and rounder than grizzlies, and have bigger ears and longer faces. They also lack the distinctive shoulder hump of the grizzly. Black bears are omnivorous animals with vegetation making up about 80% of their diet. They are renowned for their acute sense of smell that allows them to locate food at great distances. Black bears can run at speeds of up to 40 kilometres per hour, are adept climbers and can weigh up to 270 kilograms. When standing upright, black bears can reach up to two meters tall.

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Numerous, hungry, and naturally curious, bears frequently come into contact with humans on hiking trails, recreation sites, in the backcountry, and even in town. Famously, in 2011, the conservation office was flooded with calls after several witnesses spotted a black bear in the back of a dump truck as it drove through downtown Vancouver, which must have been a shock to many on their morning commute. For bears, who have to eat large quantities of food to sustain their body weight during winter months when they hibernate, the search for food brings them into conflict with humans. When encounters with bears go badly, it is often in areas where the animals have become human accustomed, learning to associate people with food. On hiking trails and in the backcountry, people are strongly advised not to feed bears, and to be responsible with garbage and to store food in bear bins, or high up in trees away from campsites. Bears who learn to associate humans and human settlements with food often become unafraid of humans, and sometimes even aggressive, or territorial. Once bears adopt this behaviour, it can't be unlearned, and garbage addicted problem bears are often euthanized by conservation officers for public safety. In Penticton, bear sightings aren't unusual near town. In the spring of 2020, residents were stunned by a rare sighting, a black bear followed closely by her 5 cubs. A black bear litter can reach up to six, but it is unusual for a bear to have more than two or three cubs.

8. Eagle


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A large bird of prey, the eagle has exceptionally keen vision, long, powerful wings, a hooked bill and strong feet with sharp curved talons. Eagles are fierce predators, spotting their animal prey as they soar or from their perches, and then swooping to kill. In British Columbia, there are two species of eagle: the bald eagle, and the golden eagle. BC and Alaska boast some of the highest numbers of bald eagles in the world, especially along the coast. While bald eagles will hunt land mammals, birds, and reptiles, its preferred prey are fish. Inland, bald eagles make their nests close to aquatic habitats such as rivers and lakes. They mate for life, and will return to the same nest year after year to raise their young. Young eagles are a dark brown colour with off white streaks, the distinctive white head and tail on a dark brown body, does not appear until the bald eagles mature at about five years old. A mature bald eagle stands at about 70- 102 cm tall, but boasts an incredible wingspan of about 1.8 to 2.3 meters, often taller than an average adult man.

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In BC, bald eagles are known as a conservation success story. Despite a sharp decline in the 20th century from hunting and pesticides such as DDT, bald eagles have now recovered from their endangered species status, and are now a common sight across the province. While bald eagles are more common, BC is also home to the golden eagle. While the bald eagle is something of a scavenger, stealing kills from other animals and even raiding garbage bins, golden eagles are incredible hunters. Unlike bald eagles, golden eagles prefer terrestrial prey, generally hunting small mammals such as marmots, ground squirrels and rabbits, although they have been known to take on much larger prey. Eagles will sometimes hunt mountain goats, bighorn sheep, deer, and sometimes even coyotes. While golden eagles exist across the province, they do so in much sparser distribution than the bald eagle, preferring grassy, mountainous habitats. The South Okanagan is one of the areas of the province where they nest, along with the Kootenays, and the middle Fraser River.


Endnotes

5. Wolf

1. Sarah Cox, "The complicated tale of why BC paid $2 million to shoot wolves in endangered caribou habitat this winter," The Narhwal, April 25, 2020. Online

2. Carli Berry, "Wolf cull could have repercussions in the Okanagan" Keremos Review, December 28, 2018. Online.


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